Main results of the second day of the Gaidar Forum
The main themes of the second day of the 10th Gaidar Forum 2019 were the national development goals of Russia to 2024, the implementation of the May 2018 decree of the President of the Russian Federation, and various aspects of sanctions and trade wars.
The main attention of the panel discussion “National Development Goals: Russia's Strategy 2018–2024” was focused on the discussion of the topic announced by First Deputy Prime Minister of the Russian Federation, Finance Minister Anton Siluanov, Chairman of the Accounts Chamber Alexei Kudrin, and Mayor of Moscow, Head of the State Council Work Group on Implementation of the President’s May decree Sergei Sobyanin.
Anton Siluanov stated that national projects are “only tools for achieving more global goals.” According to him, for each national goal the government has its own plan, which will allow achieving them.
Alexei Kudrin noted that a “completely new frame” had been created to fulfill the Decree of the President of Russia “On the national goals and strategic objectives of the development of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2024”. Now, personal responsibility for the implementation of not only each national project, but each goal will be assigned to the vice-premiers as curators and ministers as responsible owners.
The problems of spending powers delineation between the center and the regions were touched upon during the discussion of “Financial participation of regions in achieving national development goals”.
Larisa Eroshkina, Director of the Department of Intergovernmental Relations at the Ministry of Finance of Russia, said that the number of regions with a budget surplus in Russia in 2018 almost doubled as compared with the previous year – from 38 to 67. According to her, this was largely due to the growth of the regions’ own tax base.
“For the first time since 2007, that is, for 11 years, we have the budgets of the subjects of the Russian Federation where profit is higher than the expenditure, that is, they have a surplus. The surplus is unique: if in 2007 it was 50 billion rubles, then 11 years later it grew up to 500 billion rubles,” said Larisa Eroshkina.
The strategy of Russia's scientific and technological development was reviewed by Deputy Minister of Economic Development of the Russian Federation Sergey Gorkov, Chairman of the Executive Board of RUSNANO Management Company Anatoly Chubais, General Director of the State Atomic Energy Corporation Rosatom Alexey Likhachev, President of the Russian Academy of Sciences Alexander Sergeev, Dean of the Faculty of Economics at the Lomonosov Moscow State University Alexander Auzan, Deputy Chairman of the Board of Sberbank Stanislav Kuznetsov, Director General of the Innovation Promotion Foundation Sergey Polyakov, and President of the National Research Center Kurchatov Institute Mikhail Kovalchuk.
The President of the Russian Academy of Sciences Sergeyev and the director of the Kurchatov Center Kovalchuk talked a lot about science as the most important productive force of modern development and about how Russian science can achieve real participation in the modernization economy of the country and the world.
“It is necessary to do not frontal, but enclave modernization, and look for breakthrough points,” said Alexander Auzan, the Dean of the Faculty of Economics at the Lomonosov Moscow State University, in his speech.
Within the scope of the Gaidar Forum and as part of the panel discussion “New program for monotowns support: key areas for development”, the supervisor of this project Vadim Zhivulin, Deputy Minister of Economic Development of the Russian Federation, told about changes in the criteria for obtaining a monotown status. It is planned that the updated list of monotowns will be submitted in April 2019 after the Ministry of Economic Development of Russia finishes the calculations.
During the panel discussion “State as a Platform: People and Technologies”, Maria Shklyaruk, Scientific Manager of Chief Digital Transformation Officer program of HSPA RANEPA, pointed out the need to achieve the most advanced globally third stage of digitalization – implementing platform solutions as a decisive factor in reducing transaction costs and dramatically improving efficiency.
The participant of the same discussion President, Chairman of the Board of Sberbank PJSC Herman Gref also noted the problem of state participation in the aspects of the digital integration market regulation. It is important to correctly apply the factor of state participation in order not to repeat the mistakes of the EU, when the centralized decisions posed the danger of growing lagging in the critical intellectual digital technologies. Gref sees one of the primary dangers in the emergence of so-called expert barriers, which are typical of high-tech market segments.
Discussing the "Digital Economy" national program, its priorities for the transformation of public administration and the development of end-to-end technologies, Deputy Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation Maxim Akimov uncovered approaches to address the issue of the key process node – providing technological and legal opportunities for seamless integration of key (basic) government systems to ensure proper departmental interaction and engagement of private service operators. The speeches of other participants of this discussion contained the idea of very attractive starting conditions in Russia for the successful implementation of the state digital control program.
As part of the business breakfast “State and business on the path of digital transformation of the agro-industrial complex,” Deputy Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation Alexey Gordeyev pointed out that digital technologies in the agro-industrial complex are not a novelty any longer. According to him, the transformation of technology and the dialogue between business and government are of paramount importance. “The state is fully interested in creating conditions for the development of digital transformation in order to improve the balance and develop the country's economy”, he added. At the same time, a number of heads of Russian regions expressed their concern about the decline in demographic and deterioration in staffing indicators necessary to obtain the desired effect in the AIC from the introduction of digital technologies.
The main refrain of the “People in the data economy” discussion was the thesis about the impossibility of digital transformation of education without a digital transformation of the economy. For the advanced Russian IT companies, such as Mail.Ru Group and Yandex, the main challenge is access to human resources. In this regard, companies are actively developing direct cooperation with universities, from which both the company and the university enjoy mutual benefits.
In addition, on January 16, a round table meeting was held to discuss the social and psychological aspects of digitalization. Alexander Asmolov, Director for Humanitarian Policy, RANEPA; Ardin Jalali, director of international programs at Steinbeis University; Grigory Asmolov, Researcher, Institute of Russia, Royal College of London; Wolf Stelzner, professor of psychology at the University of Potsdam; Edward Galazhinsky, rector of Tomsk State University, and Harald Pechlaner, director of the Center for Strategic Studies at the European Academy of Bolzano, took part in the discussion.
“If we clearly understand today that the future is backed up with a strategy of readiness for change and a clear understanding of the unity of ethical principles and technological progress, then the picture of the world will change in an optimistic direction. Of course, on the one hand, total digitalization is a huge risk, but on the other hand, it offers huge opportunities, it is very important to actualize them in the right direction,” the participants of the round table concluded.
The tone of the whole discussion “Education and Economic Growth: A Strategy for the Future” was set by Tatiana Klyachko, Director, the Center of Economy of Continuing Education, RANEPA, giving a keynote speech. She cited data from the study, which conducted a comparative analysis of economic growth models taking into account human capital in developed and developing countries. The following differences are visible: for developing countries, the coverage of secondary education is important, and for developed countries, the number of students per class per teacher is important.
Tatyana Klyachko also noted a number of difficulties in the combination of economic growth and human capital: if you accumulate human capital but you do not have the economic conditions to actualize its potential, you can get a massive brain drain. Despite the influx of young people in the field of science and innovations, over the past 15 years, there has been a decline in the number of researchers in Russia as compared to other countries. An important factor is the absence of a requirement on the average age of scientists, which could ensure the involvement of young scientists.
Aspects of the sanctions and trade wars, the format of foreign companies work in Russia under sanctions, as well as the future of the WTO were outlined in a number of relevant forum sessions.
“In the global economy, the only way for countries is to communicate with each other. I am optimistic, we need to jointly solve problems,” said the Chairman of the Board of Directors of the East Office of Finnish Industries, Prime Minister of Finland (1991-1995) Esko Aho.
“The best answer to sanctions is not counter-sanctions and not an attempt to cause the same pain, but to think about yourself and your investment climate. The better it is, the better the economy will be,” says AmCham President Alexis Rodzianko.
Representatives of the diplomatic corps and the academic community discussed international educational cooperation in the context of economic and political constraints. The list of speakers and experts of the discussion included representatives of international and cultural cooperation of Italy, the Netherlands, and Spain.
“There are areas that are developing between Russia and the world, regardless of the political agenda. The sphere of education, science and culture should develop without regard to the political situation,” Special Representative of the President of the Russian Federation for International Cultural Cooperation Mikhail Shvydkoy said.
Maxim Parshin, the Deputy Minister of Digital Development, Communications and Mass Communications of the Russian Federation; Savva Shipov, Deputy Minister of Economic Development of the Russian Federation; Maxim Akimov, Deputy Prime Minister of the Russian Federation; Alexey Malinovsky, Head of Mastercard in Russia; Amr Salem, Global Vice President, Cisco; Mikhail Krotov, Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation at the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation; Sergei Shakhrai, professor, a co-author of the Constitution of the Russian Federation; Ramazan Sarpekov, Director of the Institute of Legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan, statesman of the Republic of Kazakhstan; Marina Borovskaya, First Deputy Minister of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation; Sergey Kravtsov, head of the Federal Service for Supervision in Education and Science; Yaroslav Kuzminov, Rector of the National Research University - Higher School of Economics; Victor Sadovnichy, Rector of the Lomonosov Moscow State University; Vladimir Mau, Rector, RANEPA; Alexander Nikitin, head of the administration of the Tambov region; Andrei Nikitin, Governor of the Novgorod Region; Natalia Komarova, Governor of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug - Ugra; Artem Zdunov, Chairman of the Government of the Republic of Dagestan; Svetlana Petrova, Deputy Minister of Labor and Social Protection of the Russian Federation; Anastasia Rakova, Deputy Mayor of Moscow in the Moscow Government for Social Development; Ruslan Vesterovskiy, Deputy Governor, the Central Bank of the Russian Federation; Olga Golodets, Deputy Prime Minister of the Russian Federation; Pavel Stepanov, Deputy Minister of Culture of the Russian Federation; Mikhail Murashko, Head of the Federal Service for Supervision of Healthcare; Sergey Kraevoi, Deputy Minister of Health of the Russian Federation; Sergey Tsyb, First Deputy Minister of Industry and Trade of the Russian Federation; Igor Orlov, Governor of the Arkhangelsk Region; Sergey Ryabukhin, Chairman of the Federation Council Committee on the Budget and Financial Markets; Yury Roslyak, Auditor, the Accounts Chamber of the Russian Federation; Dmitry Svatkovsky, member of the State Duma Committee on Budget and Taxes, and others actively participated in the Gaidar Forum discussions of the second day.
10th Gaidar Forum Organizers:
The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA);
The Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy (Gaidar Institute);
The Association of Innovative Regions of Russia (AIRR).
The general partners of the Gaidar Forum are Gazprom and Gazprombank; strategic partners include Prosveshcheniye publishing house, Coca-Cola, Pharmstandard group, ACIG Group of Companies, the Russian Textbook Corporation, SANOFI, Novartis, Johnson & Johnson, Russian Railways, MSD, and Mastercard; EY, Cisco and Russian Direct Investment Fund are partners. This discussion’s partners are Philips, Cherkizovo and RVC.
The general information partners of the Gaidar Forum include the Rossiya 24 TV channel, Forbes global media company, RBC and TASS news agencies. The official information agency is Rossiya Segodnya. The general radio partner is Business FM. The strategic information partners are Kommersant Publishers, the RT TV channel, Interfax and Gazeta.RU. The main information partners are Profil weekly, FederalPress news agency, and Invest Foresight online magazine. The international information partners are Sputnik and Cision. Other media partners include PRIME news agency, Rossiyskaya Gazeta, RNS news agency, Radio Ekho Moskvy, News.Ru, Polit.ru, Parlamentskaya Gazeta, the PRO BUSINESS TV channel, Strategia magazine, AK&M, BRICS, Ekonomika i Zhizn weekly, National Banking Journal, Expert Tatarstan magazine, the Smart Country information platform, Financial One, Naans Media, and the Public Administration scientific political journal.